1 Characteristics of lesions
Inflammation of the eyelids of different etiology( parasitic, bacterial, viral, chemical, allergic, autoimmune) is called blepharitis. In most cases, there is a bilateral defeat. Every third person at least once experienced the symptoms of blepharitis. Inflammation of the lower eyelid or upper may occur at any age. Most often, this pathology develops in adults 40 to 70 years of age.
With blepharitis, the skin of the ciliary margin is involved in the process, to which eyelashes are attached. Blepharitis is difficult to medicate. Distinguish the following varieties of blepharitis:
- simple( scaly);
- is ulcerative;
- is allergic;
Depending on the severity of inflammation, distinguish anterior, posterior and angular blepharitis. In the first case only the edge of the century becomes inflamed. In the posterior marginal blepharitis, the meibomian glands become inflamed. These structures are located in the thickness of the eyelids and produce a fatty secret. With an angular type of inflammation, the corners of the eyes are affected. There are also infectious and non-infectious forms of the disease.
2 Etiology of
Inflammation of the upper eyelid or lower may be due to several reasons. The following causes of development of this eye pathology distinguish:
- tick infections( demodectic eyelids);
- penetration of bacteria( staphylococci, streptococci);
- infection with a molluscum contagiosum virus;
- allergic reaction to medications or foods;
- fungal diseases;
- Eye contact with dust or other particles;
- irritation by wind;
- contact dermatitis;
Very often the inflammation of the upper eyelid and the lower one is allergic in nature. The basis is the change in the chemical composition of the secretion of the meibomian glands or the disruption of its production. It is possible against a background of helminthiases, chronic gastritis, enterocolitis, diabetes, tuberculosis infection. Secondary inflammation of the eyelids is possible against a background of herpes infection, meibomite.
There are factors that increase the likelihood of the development of this eyelid pathology. These include a decrease in immunity, alcoholism, anemia, the presence of chronic diseases( caries, sinusitis, tonsillitis), intoxication of the body, work in dusty premises, hypovitaminosis, hypersensitivity to cosmetic agents, dust, plant pollen, smoke, medicines. Very often inflammation of the eyelids is combined with violations of eye refraction( myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism).
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3 How to recognize the pathology of
Inflammation of the eyelids can be recognized by the following features:
- edema of one or both eyelids;
- availability of crusts;
- to lashes;
- eye fatigue;
- severity in the eyelids;
- accumulation of secretions in the corners of the eyes;
- thickening of the eyelids.
Symptoms depend on the etiology of inflammation. When demodexia of the eyelids is pronounced itch. It is caused by skin irritation by the products of mites. In some patients, discharge in the region of a foamy eye is detected. Eyelashes in these patients stick together. When seborrheic form on the edges of the eyelids are formed small scales. Intensive loss of eyelashes and the presence of ulcers are signs of ulcerative blepharitis.
4 Therapeutic tactics in the fight against the disease
If inflammation of the eyelid is observed, the treatment begins after establishing the cause of blepharitis. Such studies are required:
- eyelash study from every century on the presence of mites of the genus Demodex;
- study of refraction and accommodation;
- bacteriological examination of a smear taken from a conjunctiva;
- feces analysis for the presence of helminth eggs.
In most cases, local and general therapy is provided. Local treatment involves eyelid lubrication, pawning of medicinal products in the form of ointments, the use of antimicrobial solutions. An important place in the treatment is the rehabilitation of foci of chronic infection( treatment of caries, sinusitis, stomatitis, pathology of the digestive system).
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Scheme of therapy includes enhancing immunity, eyelid massage, the use of drops for the eyes, the optimization of living and working conditions. If a sick person has inflammation of the eyelids with demodecosis, the following medicines are used:
- eye gel Metrogil;
- "Metronidazole" in tablets;
Drugs in the form of a gel are very effective, since they are able to penetrate deep into the skin. Treatment should be aimed at destroying the causative agent of the infection. Most often, the duration of therapy is 1-1.5 months. In advanced cases, the drug should be used for a longer time( up to a year).Often used such agents as ointment "Physostigmine", eye drops "Tosmilen", "Armin".These drugs paralyze mites and cause their death. Often a systemic treatment of Trichopolis is performed.
During the treatment of blepharitis against a background of demodecosis, you should regularly wipe eyelids with disposable clean napkins, often change bedding. In case of wearing glasses it is recommended to treat them with alcohol. For the duration of treatment, cosmetics should be discarded. An addition to the main treatment is the use of herbs for rubbing the eyelids and ingestion( wormwood, tansy, aloe, oak bark, celandine).
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5 Therapy of allergic blepharitis
The main direction of treatment of allergic inflammation of the eyelids is the elimination of allergens.
If an allergy occurs against the background of taking any products, then you need to exclude them from the diet. Of the medicines should be used anti-allergic ointments( "Alomide", "Lecrolin").It is recommended to lubricate the edges of eyelids based on glucocorticosteroids. With mixed( infectious-allergic) inflammation, drops for eyes "Dexa-Gentamicin" are shown.
Patients should comply with the following recommendations:
- wear sunglasses;
- to prevent dust and dirt from entering the eyes;
- comply with the diet of dairy;
- to refuse for a while from the use of mascara for eyelashes and shadows;
- regularly observe the rules of personal hygiene;
- wash eyelids only with warm and clear water.
In the summer, it is necessary to stay away from flowering plants. Self-medication is unacceptable.
6 Activities with other forms of
If scales are detected on the affected eyelid and scaly blepharitis is diagnosed, treatment requires a thorough eyelid toilet( removal of crusts and secretions formed).For this purpose it is necessary to visit the doctor, since simple washing is not always effective. Cleaning with tweezers is often required. To eliminate inflammation ophthalmic ointments are used on the basis of "Hydrocortisone" or "Dexamethasone".In the bacterial etiology of the disease, antibiotics( ointments based on "Erythromycin" and "Tetracycline") are prescribed.
With seborrheic blepharitis, moisturizing drops are frequently prescribed( artificial tear preparations).With a simple form of blepharitis for the treatment of the eyelids, a solution of "furacilin" or saline is used. Local antibiotics and antiseptics are prescribed. Ulcerative blepharitis is an indication for the prescription of antibiotics and antiseptics. Apply ointments based on "Furacilin", "Tetracycline", "Tobramycin".A good effect is provided by drugs containing both a glucocorticosteroid and an antibiotic.
In case of development of conjunctivitis or marginal keratitis, eye drops are additionally used. When ulcers are found in the cornea area, such agents as "Dexpanthenol" or "Solcoseryl" are prescribed. They have a healing effect. With meibomian blepharitis, the patient should take systemic antibiotics( "Doxycycline").If complications develop, surgical intervention may be required. Thus, the inflammation of the eyelid is a frequent pathology among adults and children, which requires early detection and treatment.