The presence of kidney stones in women and men is called urolithiasis in medicine, or is called "urolithiasis".Stones can form not only in the kidneys, but also in other organs of the urinary system of an adult.
The stones formed in the kidneys look like a solid, crystal-like mass, which consists of the salts that make up human urine in small amounts.
They may vary in shape and size. Stones come in the form of small grains that pass painlessly into the urine, or a large complex formation of up to 5 cm.
Reasons for the formation of
Why do stones form in the kidneys, and what is it? Absolute reasons why there can be stones in the kidneys, no. But doctors can tell exactly which factors of are capable of provoking a similar pathology of :
- the use of hard water saturated with salts;
- hereditary predisposition;
- malfunction of parathyroid glands;
- frequent consumption of food products that can increase the acidity of urine( sour, spicy, salty, spicy);
- lack of ultraviolet rays;
- lack of vitamins, especially group D;
- geographic factor( residents of hot countries constitute the main part of the risk group);
- trauma and bone system diseases( causes of kidney stones - osteoporosis and osteomyelitis);
- prolonged dehydration of the body due to poisoning or transferred infectious diseases;
- chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and various organs of the genitourinary system( the causes of kidney stones here can be gastritis, peptic ulcer, colitis, adenoma, pyelonephritis, cystitis, etc.).
Kidney stones have different sizes, are formed on any part of the genitourinary system and, depending on the actual cause of their formation, have different composition.
Stone is divided into:
- Phosphate - consists of salts of phosphoric acid. They occur with an infection of the urinary tract, grow quite rapidly in alkaline urine;
- Cholesterol - occur due to high cholesterol content. Meet rarely;
- Oxalate - formed from calcium oxalic acid in alkaline or acidic urine;
- Urate are salts of uric acid. They are one of the most common species;
- Cystine - consist of compounds of the amino acids cystine.
Knowledge of the composition of the stone gives the doctor the opportunity to correctly conduct treatment, and the patient - to understand the meaning of his recommendations, their seriousness and importance.
Oxalate calcium stones
Black or dark gray, with movement inside the body cause severe pain due to a spiked surface. Mucous is damaged and this causes blood in the urine. Typically, you have to perform their removal by an operation. Other methods of treatment can be eliminated only from oxalate sand.
A common cause of the formation is excessive intake of oxalic acid from food. Regular consumption of juices, carrots, beets, vitamin C in large quantities causes their formation and growth.
Symptoms of kidney stones
In the presence of kidney stones, the characteristic symptoms are due to violations of urodynamics, changes in kidney function and the occurrence of an inflammatory process in the urinary tract.
Urolithiasis occurs in men, and in women. Despite the fact that in the stronger sex most often there are stones in the kidneys, the symptoms of the disease appear stronger and heavier in women. As experts say, this is due primarily to the peculiarities of the structure of the female body. Until the stone begins to move from its place, the person does not feel any signs of stones in the kidneys. However, if the movement of the stone began, the symptoms are so bright that a person suffers from severe pain.
The main symptoms of the presence of urolithiasis include :
- acute or stitching pain in the lower back or side, pain in the kidney( renal colic);
- is an irradiation pain in the kidney that gives off to neighboring organs;
- pain in the lower abdomen;
- attacks of nausea and vomiting;
- violation of urination( delay or rapidity);
- frequent urge to urinate;
- pain and burning during urination;
- waste of sand or pebbles;
- increased body temperature;
- cold sweat;
- increase in pressure.
The main symptom of urolithiasis is renal colic. It occurs when the ureter is obstructed by a stone and is characterized by sudden cramping pain. Pain syndrome is caused by increased peristalsis and spasm of the urinary tract. The pain is so strong that the sick person can not find a comfortable position, walks from corner to corner.
Pain syndrome can develop at different frequencies: from several times a month to 1 time for several years. Usually the colic lasts about 1-2 hours, but sometimes it can last up to a day or more with small interruptions. Often, after the pain subsides with the urine, so-called sand or small stones are separated.
Blood in the urine with kidney stones
Advancing the stone causes damage to the walls of the urinary tract, which is accompanied by the appearance of a symptom such as blood in the urine. Sometimes it is visible to the naked eye, such a symptom is called a macrohematuria.
In other cases, the blood in the urine is detected only by microscopic examination, this is called microhematuria. In 85% of cases of stones in the urine appears blood. However, the absence of this symptom does not exclude the presence of concrement.
Before you figure out how to treat kidney stones in women or men, you must correctly diagnose. In this we will be helped by modern diagnostic methods :
- ultrasound examination of the diseased organ;
- laboratory examination of urine and blood;
- urography( review and / or excretory).
As an additional survey is assigned:
- computer tomography of a multispiral type - this method allows you to determine the size and type;
- nephroscintigraphy - reveals the level of functional disorders in the work of the kidneys;
- definition of sensitivity to antibiotics - the level of development of the inflammatory process is revealed.
Naturally, the examination and questioning of the patient is conducted - it is necessary to find out the possible causes that triggered a metabolic disorder before the formation of kidney stones. This diagnosis is basic - on the basis of the results you can draw a conclusion and prescribe a treatment.
Treatment of kidney stones
"I have kidney stones. What to do? "- this question is asked by a lot of people who are facing this disease. The only way out is to get rid of stones. This can be done surgically or conservatively, in the latter case tablets are placed breaking stones. They can be taken at home.
Regarding the probability of an independent separation of the stone, it all depends on its size and shape, individual characteristics of the structure of the urinary system of man.
Concrements up to 5 mm independently leave the urinary system in 67-80% of cases, with a size of 5 to 10 mm, this figure is only 20-47%.
Often anomalies in the structure of the urinary system of the patient, for example, narrowing of the ureter, makes it impossible to separate even a small stone. Concrements more than 10 mm in diameter require medical intervention.
The complex of conservative therapeutic measures includes:
- diet therapy;
- correction of water and electrolyte balance;
- exercise therapy;
- antibiotic therapy;
- herbal medicine;
- balneological and sanatorium treatment.
For all forms of nephrolithiasis, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, stone-destroying, analgesic and antispasmodic drugs are used. Antibacterial therapy is also performed, antiplatelet agents, angioprotectors and herbal preparations are recommended. Treatment is conducted by courses, under strict medical supervision.
Diet is also one of the main components of conservative treatment. Based on the composition of the stones and the characteristics of their structure, it is determined which products are to be excluded.
Drugs for the dissolution of kidney stones
For the control of kidney stones, a number of drugs are used, most based on herbs, which help slow down growth, dissolve or remove stones from the kidneys.
- Kanefron H is a herbal preparation of complex action. It is used with urate and calcium oxalate stones.
- Cystone is a complex herbal preparation. It is used for all types of stones.
- Blemaren, Uralit - preparations for dissolution of stones and alkalinization of urine. Effective against urate and mixed stones.
- Phytolysin, Phytolite - preparations based on herbal extracts. Promote the excretion of small stones and hinder the growth and formation of new stones.
In the case of the infectious nature of the disease( coral stones), in addition to the mandatory antimicrobial treatment course to neutralize the infection.
Kidney stones fragmentation
Remote crushing of stones - shock wave lithotripsy. This method is widely used in connection with what is most sparing. Do not make any punctures, cuts, etc. The stones are destroyed by remote wave action, and then they are eliminated from the body naturally.
Remote shock wave lithotripsy is quite effective, when the kidney stones are no more than 2 cm in diameter .The apparatus that destroys the stones is called a remote lithotripter. There is an electrohydraulic, ultrasonic, laser, piezoelectric, pneumatic lithotripter. Not everything is so good - there are contraindications, not all stones are suitable for lithotripsy, etc.
Surgical removal of the stones
The choice of the method for the surgical treatment of the ICD depends on the size and position of the stone, the state of the urinary tract, the activity of the infection, the patient's composition, the doctor's experience and individual factors.
- The open operation is old, the most reliable, but the most traumatic and therefore the most dangerous method. The stone is mechanically removed by cutting a kidney or bladder. Used when it is not possible to apply ESWL or endoscopic technique.
- Endourethral technique - endoscopic equipment is inserted into the renal pelvis through the urethra or through a puncture in the skin. The device is brought to the stone, which is extracted, or destroyed by one of the methods: mechanically, contact ultrasonic wave, laser beam.
Before the operation, drugs are prescribed that provide improved microcirculation of blood, in addition antibiotics and antioxidants are prescribed. In situations in which the ureter is clogged with a stone, the treatment accompanying the movement of the stone begins with the excretion of the urine from the kidney. This effect refers to a kind of surgical interventions, it is performed under local anesthesia, the possibility of significant blood loss, as well as the development of complications, is not ruled out.
Diet for kidney stones
If you have diagnosed oxalate stones with in the kidney, then the treatment should be combined with a specific diet.
- First of all, you need to limit the consumption of foods rich in oxalic acid: spinach, sorrel, potatoes, lettuce, oranges and milk. In the diet, you need to include apples, pears, grapes, dried apricots, as well as dishes with a high content of magnesium, which binds the salts of oxalic acid.
Diet when detecting phosphate stones should be aimed at acidifying urine.
- It is useful for this purpose to drink more cranberry or cowberry juice. The treatment of formations in the kidneys of this variety is promoted by the meat diet, the intake of enough fish and meat protein into the body. This should become the basis of nutrition. Greens, vegetables, milk and sour-milk products should be excluded.
As for urate stones , then the diet should not contain meat and other meat products, chocolate, lemons and some other products. The diet should include fresh fruit and vegetable juices. A good therapeutic effect is given by melons and watermelons. A great importance in the treatment of kidney stone disease has a drinking diet. Need to drink more fluids. The water should not be rigid at the same time.
For all types of stones in the diet, the following recommendations should be adhered to:
- Increase the volume of fluid intake to 2.5 liters per day;
- If necessary, take diuretic infusions of herbs;
- Do not overeat, avoid eating fatty, fried, smoked food and excess salt in the diet.
There are also a number of recipes for folk methods that can be used to remove small stones of any kind, as well as sand.
How to treat kidney stones with folk remedies
In addition to medicines, kidney stones also use folk remedies. The most effective folk remedies that will help to remove stones from the kidneys at home conditions can be considered the following:
- For the crushing of stones, rose hips perfectly fits.35 grams of dry shredded raw material is poured into two glasses of boiling water and pressed on a water bath for about a quarter of an hour, and then wrapped and insisted for another 6 hours. The filtered broth is drunk for ½ cup half an hour before meals 4 times a day. The remedy is potent, therefore the duration of the intake, which usually ranges from 1 to 4 weeks, and the exact dosage should prescribe a phytotherapeutist or urologist.
- With oxalates and urates, you need to take such a folk remedy. Mix the ingredients taken over 200 milliliters: honey, vodka, olive oil, lemon juice .All carefully mixed and set aside for two weeks, in a tightly closed bottle, in a dark and cool place. Use it for medicinal purposes three times a day on a tablespoon. After two weeks, they take a break for 5 days, and then repeat the treatment.
- Pass 10 lemons without pits with rind through a meat grinder , put in 3-liter jar and pour 2 l of boiled water, add 2 tbsp.l.medical glycerin. Insist half an hour, drain. Drink liquid for 2 hours at intervals of 10 minutes: take 1 glass every 10 minutes. Put a warm water bottle on the area of the diseased kidney. After a while, the pain will intensify, the sand will start to come out. When preparing a medicine, remember that the lemon juice decomposes rapidly, so you need to squeeze fresh juice for each intake.
- Watermelon crusts .For the treatment is suitable only raw materials from watermelons grown in their own garden, because for the cultivation of fruits for sale is used a large number of nitrates, accumulating mostly in the skin of berries. The watermelon crusts, dried in the oven or electric dryer, are poured into water( 1: 1), boiled on low heat for about half an hour, filtered and taken on a glass 3 to 5 times a day before meals.
- A fairly simple tool - apple apple tea .Drink tea from the rind of apples constantly, and it will help to get rid of stones in the kidneys, the formation of sand, urolithiasis. The most important thing is that you need to be treated constantly and do not miss days. A brew the skin can be dried and fresh. It will be better if you dry the peel, then grind to a powder and pour boiling water. The powder should be two teaspoons, pour for twenty minutes, and then just drink like tea.
Treatment of urolithiasis with folk remedies is best combined with traditional medicine. To select a folk way of treatment is necessary in accordance with what treatment you were prescribed by a doctor.