1 The main causes of the development of multiple sclerosis
Data on such a pathological condition as multiple sclerosis were first generalized by the famous neuropathologist Jean Charcot as far back as the 70s of the 19th century, but many aspects of the development of this disease remain a mystery for modern medicine. It is believed that the main group at risk of the incidence of multiple sclerosis is represented by women between the ages of 18 and 36, and in most cases, fair-haired, blue-eyed, blue-gray or green-colored irises suffer from this disease. Thus, it was revealed that more often multiple sclerosis is observed in women of the European race. In Scandinavian countries, the number of people with multiple sclerosis is several times higher than in the CIS countries.
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Multiple sclerosis is an autoim
mune disease, that is, the human immune system itself attacks the nerve fibers, damaging their myelin sheath. All autoimmune diseases are in some way a mystery for modern medicine, since all the factors and mechanisms for the appearance of such a malfunction in the functioning of the immune system are not revealed. Despite the fact that the exact causes of the development of multiple sclerosis are not yet known, the possible predisposing factors for the emergence of this condition include:
- performed surgical operations;
- physical or mental overload;
- experienced the strongest emotional turmoil;
- herb spine or skull;
- other autoimmune diseases;
- poisoning with toxic substances;
- lack of vitamin D;
- radioactive irradiation;
- viral or infectious diseases;
- vaccination against viral hepatitis.
It is not known whether multiple sclerosis has a genetic etiology. The fact is that people who have relatives who suffer from multiple sclerosis do not get sick more often than those who do not have cases of this disease in the family. At the same time, it is impossible to completely exclude the risk of hereditary transmission of multiple sclerosis, therefore, people who have blood relatives suffering from this disease should be extremely careful about their health and, at the first signs of it, turn to the neurologist for comprehensive examination and treatment. It should be noted that the earlier treatment of multiple sclerosis was started, the higher the chances for a longer full life.
2 How does a person's life change with this pathology?
Many people who know the diagnosis are primarily interested in how much they live with multiple sclerosis, but in most cases even a qualified neurologist is difficult to make an accurate prediction, because this disease has an individual course in all patients. Multiple sclerosis is called "a disease of thousands of people," since the damage to the myelin sheath of nerve fibers of white matter in the spinal cord and brain leads to a variety of disorders. At present, it is known that in the development of multiple sclerosis only conductive neurons of white matter are damaged, while the gray matter of the brain remains untouched. Thus, the signal can not properly reach the brain center that receives it, which is the appearance of a number of symptomatic manifestations. The characteristic manifestations of multiple sclerosis are:
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- vision impairment in one or both eyes;
- muscle weakness;
- increased fatigue in the lower limbs;
- numbness of the limbs;
- numbness of individual parts of the body;
- speech changes;
- breathing difficulty
- impaired coordination;
- gait unsteadiness;
- nausea and vomiting;
- blurred vision;
- cognitive impairment;
- optic neuritis;
- disorders of urination.
In the future, manifestations of disruption of the nerve fibers can significantly increase, leading to severe disability. Living with multiple sclerosis is extremely difficult, as the patient not only needs to learn how to take his illness as part of his new reality, but also try not to lose heart about it, since depression can provoke aggravation of the situation. Since living a person suffering from multiple sclerosis will have to deal with new problems caused by the gradual disruption of the work of conducting nerve fibers, he needs the support of relatives.
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As the disease progresses, people gradually lose the ability to see, hear and perceive information in full. In addition, there is a complete impairment of motor function. Given the early debut of the disease, the life expectancy of patients largely depends on the characteristics of the course of the disease. For example, in severe cases of the course of the disease, in which frequent exacerbations occur, the life expectancy of the patient can be reduced to 5-7 years. In case the disease occurs with rare exacerbations and the human body responds positively to the treatment, in such a disease as multiple sclerosis, it remains possible to live up to 35 years or more. In some cases, with the correct approach to the treatment of multiple sclerosis, a person can live as much as healthy people, while suffering minimal damage from the manifestations of the disease.
3 Complications of the
disease In some patients, multiple sclerosis debuts very early, and can occur with rapidly growing nervous system disorders. Complications, expressed by chronic disorders, usually appear in patients with multiple sclerosis after 4-5 years after the onset of the disease. Common complications of the disease include:
- incontinence or urinary retention;
- foci of a chronic infection in the bladder;
- strong weight loss;
- fluctuations in daily well-being;
- personality change;
- loss of orientation in space and time;
- rapid wear of joints;
- formation of decubitus.
This is far from a complete list of problems faced by a person living with multiple sclerosis. In some cases, patients with underlying disorders of the central nervous system develop severe mental disorders and deep depression, which in some cases leads to suicidal thoughts, and sometimes attempts to commit suicide.
4 Diagnostic methods
Multiple sclerosis is usually manifested by sufficiently bright neurological disorders, which simply can not help making the patient pricked up. When there are any neurological disorders to a person who has them, it is necessary to contact the neurologist doctor in the shortest possible time to conduct a full-scale examination. In addition to collecting anamnesis and examining the patient, the neurologist usually prescribes research such as:
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging;
- study of CSF on the determination of the number of immunoglobulins;
- blood test for the presence of antibodies.
In addition, with the help of certain techniques, a detailed study of evoked potentials, including visual, auditory and somatosensory ones, is carried out. Only when carrying out all necessary studies and detecting conduction disorders of nerve fibers is such a diagnosis as multiple sclerosis. The earlier a full-fledged study was conducted, the higher the chances of the patient for a long, full-fledged life, since any delay in treatment is dangerous.
5 How to prolong the life of patients with
Currently, multiple sclerosis is an incurable disease, since all the mechanisms of its development have not been identified, but the developed maintenance therapy allows to ensure that the patient lives as long as possible completely. To prevent the progression of multiple sclerosis, drugs related tothe following groups:
- antiviral agents;
- immunomodulating agents;
- drugs that improve metabolism;
- means for improving the regeneration of nerve tissues;
- means for improving microcirculation;
- inducers of interferons;
- means to improve the tone of the walls of blood vessels;
- muscle relaxants.
The scheme of drug treatment is selected by neurologists for each patient individually to achieve the best effect and reduce the intensity and duration of complications. The drugs used for multiple sclerosis include:
- Reaferon A.
- Synapse Depot.
- Cerebrolysin. Calcium gluconate.
- Nicotinic acid.
- Vitamin E.
This is far from a complete list of drugs that are used to treat multiple sclerosis.
Recently, more and more new drugs have appeared, which can also be used effectively in various cases of the disease.
In addition to medical treatment to improve the condition of patients can apply detoxification therapy by means of Hemodesis. In addition, often to improve the condition of patients with multiple sclerosis, plasmapheresis and fresh-frozen plasma are used. In addition, patients need a long-term directional rehabilitation to improve the condition during periods between exacerbations.
6 Prevention of exacerbation of the disease
Modern medicine does not know how to prevent the development of such a terrible disease as multiple sclerosis, but monitoring of patients allowed to identify measures to prevent the occurrence of too frequent exacerbations.
First of all, the patient should take himself in hand and do not put up a cross, because modern supportive therapy allows you to hope that he can with minimal losses until the day when the medicine for this deadly dangerous disease is found.
A person suffering from multiple sclerosis should completely abandon bad habits, including smoking and drinking alcohol, as they directly affect the state of nephrons. To stabilize the condition and prevent the exacerbation of the disease should be practiced as far as possible by physical exercises and adhere to the foundations of proper nutrition, while consuming a large number of vegetables and fruits containing vitamins and minerals necessary for the body.