Scarlet fever is an infectious disease that is characterized by an acute development of symptoms. The causative agent of the disease is a pathological microorganism from the family of streptococci, which secretes dangerous toxins in the human body, leading to a deterioration in health.
Currently, scarlet fever is considered a childhood disease. However, it is not. She can get sick and adults who have not had scarlet fever in childhood and have weakened immunity.
This is especially true for people under 30 years old, as well as elderly and suffering from chronic diseases, although cases of adult scarlet fever are now quite rare.
Reasons for the occurrence of
The reason is the appearance on the mucosa of a streptococcus of a particular form. It is very pathogenic and actively begins to colonize. Immediately, the immune system works and then all the symptoms appear on the chain.
Microorganisms multiply, release into the blood toxins, which lead to the development of general intoxication. Thi
Infection penetrates the body with the help of an airborne method. Very often infection of an adult occurs as a result of contact with a sick child who is a carrier of streptococcus. Often, infection occurs when using various household items, which had access to a sick person.
After a "meeting" with a bacterium, a life-long antitoxic immunity is formed, which is why scarlet fever can be ill only once in a lifetime( repeated disease happens in isolated cases).
Symptoms of scarlet fever in adults
The duration of the incubation period is 3-7 days, after which she develops scarlet fever, with characteristic symptoms.
In adults scarlet fever predominantly:
- In the erased form of ( almost in the form of angina), with a pale rash and without raspberry tongue;
- In very severe ( in the absence of antitoxic immunity) with fulminant manifestation of symptoms, hyperthermia, hemorrhages on the skin, pressure drop, necrotic angina, rapid development of complications.
In most cases, scarlet fever begins as an acute tonsillitis, with the appearance of severe pain in the throat and redness of the tonsils. In some cases it is possible to join lymphadenitis, an increase in cervical lymph nodes in size.
The main distinguishing feature of scarlet fever from other infections of the respiratory system is a characteristic rash that quickly spreads through the body and affects first of all the face, abdomen and joints of the joints. Exanthem, the so-called rash, is accompanied by reddening of the skin and itching. Also pay attention to the change in the color of the cheeks, they acquire a bright red color, and the tongue is painted in crimson shades.
To distinguish the rash of scarlet fever from other skin rashes, use this test-when the palm is pressed against the skin with a rash, it temporarily disappears.
Common signs of scarlet fever in adults include:
- elevated body temperature;
- rash in the form of pink dots on the face and individual areas of the skin;
- cheeks acquire a reddish tinge;
- appears vomiting;
- weakness, impaired well-being( headache, decreased appetite, drowsiness, chills, lethargy, etc.);
- heart palpitations;
- lymph node compaction;
- inflammation of the tonsils;
- joint pain;
- gray plaque on the tongue, which disappears after a couple of days.
In this case, the entire rash, despite the itching, is present on the skin up to 7 days, and the field completely disappears, leaving absolutely no traces of presence on the skin. There are no scars, no small changes, no changes in pigmentation.
After the rash completely disappears, in its place can begin peeling. A pronounced peeling appears on the soles and palms, but on the other parts of the body, it is shallow and almost imperceptible.
Preventive measures are mainly to comply with sanitary standards - isolating the patient, giving him individual personal items( dishes, towels).Streptococcus perishes at high temperatures, so all the things a patient has used must undergo a hot treatment.
Scarlet fever in adults photo
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The complications of this disease are conventionally divided into two types: early and late complications.
- In the first case, it is an intensive spread of inflammation to adjacent adjacent tissues followed by the development of sinusitis or otitis.
- In the second case we are talking about various disorders in the immune system, it can be glomerulonephritis or rheumatism.
It is important to know that the most complex forms of scarlet fever in adults appear most often due to improperly selected treatments, so in such cases it is not necessary to save money on a hike to a doctor.
Treatment of scarlet fever in adults
First of all, an adult is isolated in a separate room. Patients with a severe and moderate form of scarlet fever should be hospitalized in a hospital. Also, in order to prevent, admit adults who live with children of preschool age and schoolchildren of primary classes who are not ill with scarlet fever, are subject to hospitalization. Isolation of the patient ceases not earlier than 10 days from the onset of the disease( on condition of recovery).
Scarlet fever is treated exclusively with antibacterial drugs under the supervision of a doctor. The main drugs, as in streptococcal angina, are antibiotics of the penicillin series, for example, penicillin, amoxicillin. They must be taken within 10 days.
If these drugs are intolerant, the alternative antibiotics are Cephalosporins and Macrolides.
In parallel, the patient is prescribed rinsing of the throat with a solution of furacilin( 1: 5000) and herbal infusions( chamomile, calendula, eucalyptus), intake of vitamins and antihistamines. Antihistamines should also be taken, the most optimal use of allergy-3 tablets is Tetrin, Zirtek.
In the mild course of the disease, no effects of scarlet fever in adults are caused. But in patients who are in the hospital with an average course of the disease in 5.4% of cases there are various late complications.